Which school do you want to support?
No one goes into teaching to get rich, but it's stable work with good benefits, including health insurance. Non-salary benefits for teachers are a much-valued part of teacher compensation. They are also a complex area of public policy.
Most public school teachers are employed by school districts and health insurance is included in the benefits they offer their employees. These benefits are negotiated locally between districts and unions, but they are also negotiated between employers and insurance providers. Like all employers, districts have struggled to address spiraling health care costs. Most districts are small, and lack the power to negotiate good terms with health insurers on their own. To keep costs down some districts band together to purchase benefits -- and some put a cap on how much the district will spend per employee.
At one time, many teachers received lifetime health insurance for themselves and even for their families as part of their compensation. Such benefits are now uncommon - in 2012 just 80 of California's ~1,000 districts provided teachers with lifetime health benefits. Some districts and unions have been slow to drop these elements from their agreements, and now find themselves grappling with significant unfunded liabilities. This creates a problem not only for districts but also for current students; when liabilities grow large, a district's financing costs go up, which takes funds away from instruction. This process is of little interest to most community members, and even to many school boards and union leaders.
Everyone has a shared interest in the solvency of school districts. The obligation to provide public education is enshrined in state constitutions. That obligation means the State of California is ultimately on the hook for providing students with an education. Liabilities incurred locally through district and union negotiations must fall within the means of the community, or the state steps in by taking away that community's right to govern its own schools.
For example, in 2003 Oakland Unified School District and the Oakland Education Association jointly declared a fiscal crisis and appealed to the State of California for relief. The district was placed under a state-appointed administrator with broad powers to restore the district to solvency and operational adequacy. Happily, the district emerged from the crisis and went on to become California's fastest-improving large urban district for years thereafter. But ten years on, the district still carried debt from the mistake.
The Oakland example proved a cautionary tale in the context of the subsequent economic downturn, which saw more districts facing financial troubles. The job of evaluating district finances falls to County Offices of Education, which certify district budgets. In California, most County Superintendents of Education are elected, not appointed. Voters, understandably, tend to evaluate a candidate for this office based on experience in educational leadership rather than financial and organizational experience. The state's Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team (FCMAT) provides counties and districts with technical support, but mistakes happen.
Non-salary benefits for teachers are a critical part of "the deal" for teachers. In a sector that cannot compete strictly on the basis of pay, the choice of teaching as a calling has to "work" for teachers over the long term.
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